Lashing equipment includes webbing lashing straps, lashing chains made from a round steel chain and wire ropes. They are pre-tensioned using ratchets, winches, turnbuckles, chain hoists and other tensioning elements. Connection to the permanently fixed lashing points on the loading area, such as eyes and similar, is by elements such as lashing hooks, shackles and similar connections.
Identifying the Correct Equipment.
The labelling on the lashing equipment is standardised. The straps have a label which specifies it's characteristics. The data for the load capacity is listed in daN (deca-Newtons) and can be equated with
kg for the purpose of simplicity (it equals the weight that acts on a mass of 1 kg).
Estimating the required number of straps:
For lashing down, the overall STF values of all straps should correspond to at least the weight of the load, in kg. At low sliding friction coefficients the pre-tension force may be multiple times the load weight.
Only use permissible lashing material.
All of the straps must bear a label specifying the low-bearing capacity and must comply with the standard DIN EN 12 195, Part 2, “Lashing straps made of chemical fibres”. In addition, an identification code, the manufacturing date, the length of the strap and the maximum stretch are specified. The colour of the label (not the tensioning belts) indicates the type of material:
Blue = Polyester (PES)
Brown = Polypropylene (PP)
Green = Polyamide (PA)
White = Other materials
Handling the Lashing Equipment.
Securing the load should be a quick process. That is why the necessary equipment needs to be readily available and in perfect condition. A permanent, dedicated storage location is the best option for storing all of the lashing equipment. This allows the equipment to be checked at any time in order to remove any worn or damaged equipment.
Check the surface of the loading bed. Contamination by sand could result in a reduction of the friction resistance. If in doubt: sweep!
Or use a slip-resistant material, such as e.g. anti-slip mats.
When lashing down, make sure not to damage the load. If the load yields (carton or similar), the pretension force is lost.
Uniformly distribute the lashing equipment over the load to secure.
Do not use lashing straps for more than the tensile force.
Do not twist or put knots in the lashing straps.
Do not tension lashing straps over sharp edges, or use edge protection.
After driving for a while, again tension the straps.
Avoid lashing angles of less than 300.
Observe the prohibition of unauthorised extension of the ratchet lever.
Before using each time, check the lashing equipment for signs of wear or damage. Lashing straps without a test plate should not be used.