Tie-down, Load Security

Lashing Equipment and Eyes - The Correct Equipment for Every Purpose.

Lashing equipment includes webbing lashing straps, lashing chains made from a round steel chain and wire ropes. They are pre-tensioned using ratchets, winches, turnbuckles, chain hoists and other tensioning elements. Connection to the permanently fixed lashing points on the loading area, such as eyes and similar, is by elements such as lashing hooks, shackles and similar connections.

Identifying the Correct Equipment.
The labelling on the lashing equipment is standardised. The straps have a label which specifies it's characteristics. The data for the load capacity is listed in daN (deca-Newtons) and can be equated with
kg for the purpose of simplicity (it equals the weight that acts on a mass of 1 kg).

  • normal manual force (SHF)
    This force must be applied to a clamping device (wretched) to achieve the normal pre-tension force. 
  • normal pre-tension force (STF)
    The clamping device applies this force to the strap when used by hand only – without tools to extend the lever. The force applied to the load when lashing down depends on the angle at which the strap is lashed (see page 17).
  • maximum absorbable force (LC)
    This is the maximum force which may be applied to directly to the strap, e.g. for direct lashing. This value doubles if the strap is used as a loop.

Estimating the required number of straps: 
For lashing down, the overall STF values of all straps should correspond to at least the weight of the load, in kg. At low sliding friction coefficients the pre-tension force may be multiple times the load weight.

Only use permissible lashing material.
All of the straps must bear a label specifying the low-bearing capacity and must comply with the standard DIN EN 12 195, Part 2, “Lashing straps made of chemical fibres”. In addition, an identification code, the manufacturing date, the length of the strap and the maximum stretch are specified. The colour of the label (not the tensioning belts) indicates the type of material: 

Blue = Polyester (PES)
Brown = Polypropylene (PP)
Green = Polyamide (PA)
White = Other materials

Handling the Lashing Equipment.
Securing the load should be a quick process. That is why the necessary equipment needs to be readily available and in perfect condition. A permanent, dedicated storage location is the best option for storing all of the lashing equipment. This allows the equipment to be checked at any time in order to remove any worn or damaged equipment.

 

 

The hooks and lashing eyes and rings must  have compatible designs.The belts can be equipped with a variety of  different end fittings. The hook shown here can  be attached to a recessed lashing ring on the  outer frame.Tension ratchets rapidly and reliably generate  the lashing forces. Depending on the design of  the ratchet the forces generated by pulling or  pressing the lever.The Sliding Lashing System mounted between  the roof bars enables customised load securing.  Movable retainers are used to fit the load  securing straps. These can be pushed to any  desired position inside the cargo area.When not used or during loading, the load  securing straps can simply be moved or pulled  up to the roof using the retainers, keeping the  cargo area free. The lashing strap label  provides information about  the maximum tensile loading  and material used.Store the load securing equipment and a  storage box in the floor of the loading  surface…The load securing is only as  good as the condition of the  load securing equipment.
Practical tips

Check the surface of the loading bed. Contamination by sand could result in a reduction of the friction resistance. If in doubt: sweep!

Or use a slip-resistant material, such as e.g. anti-slip mats.

When lashing down, make sure not to damage the load. If the load yields (carton or similar), the pretension force is lost.

Uniformly distribute the lashing equipment over the load to secure.

Do not use lashing straps for more than the tensile force.

Do not twist or put knots in the lashing straps.

Do not tension lashing straps over sharp edges, or use edge protection.

After driving for a while, again tension the straps.

Avoid lashing angles of less than 300.

Observe the prohibition of unauthorised extension of the ratchet lever.

Before using each time, check the lashing equipment for signs of wear or damage. Lashing straps without a test plate should not be used.