All measures to secure the load are determined by the different types of load. This includes observing the Road Traffic Act (StVO). It requires a load distribution that impairs neither the safety of the traffic nor operation.
Taken from the operating instructions for tarpaulin vehicles:
Commercial vehicles can only be loaded to their maximum payload when the complete centre of gravity of the load is in a specified area. However, loads less than the maximum payload can also only be positioned in specified areas of the loading surface. Otherwise, there is the possibility that the load on the axle will be exceeded or insufficient. Adherence to the axle loads is ensured if the complete centre of gravity of the load is within this area, the so-called load distribution curve. From the Load Distribution Plan (LDP) and with the aid of the load distribution curve, it can be seen at which distance from the front wall of the semi-trailer which load can be loaded.
The hazards of incorrect load distribution
If the load is placed too far to the rear on the trailer, the result can be insufficient semitrailer pressure. That is important for the driving safety of the tractor unit because, if there is insufficient pressure on the drive axle, the tyres have less grip. If the load is placed too far forward, overloading of the drive axle can occur, even if the overall weight is not exceeded. Good awareness of the load distribution plan makes it easier to adhere to the statutory and technical specifications for the axle load.
For special loads with, e.g. high point loading, such as steel coil, there are exactly defined loading positions with the corresponding recesses and supports.