Tie-down, Load Security

VDI 2700

General Cargo und Beverage Transport.

Sheet 6 - Loading packaged goods.

In addition to the load securing methods, the Directive also describes the characteristics of the vehicle bodies and the equipment for transporting packaged goods. One unique aspect of packaged goods is that the cargo was often not uniform, especially when transporting combined loads. That is why combining the packages into larger loading units is highly important. This means that the individual parts are bound together and, ideally, transported with load carrier such as a pallet or a container.

The amount of pressure the individual layers can withstand must be taken into consideration when vertically stacking loading units. The overall, orderly load distribution of the corresponding vehicle must also be complied with. Furthermore, the vehicle body and the transport equipment must comply with these DIN EN 12642 Code XL and 283 swap container standards.

Sheet 12 - Load securing for beverage products.
Sheet 12 of the Directive addresses the load securing for beverage products and accessories (e.g. cooling units, tap systems) on vehicles with standard bodies and bodies with especially high structural strength as per DIN EN 12642 Code XL. Additional load securing measures can be omitted for the latter when transporting an interlocking complete load. In this case, the body is capable of absorbing all of the forces. When transporting incomplete loads, the forces must be absorbed by means of locking bars and beams or spacers, lashing straps or nets. When stacking the cargo, it is important to consider whether pallets are required between the levels and the load-bearing capacity of the lower loading units. Deformation of the cargo must be prevented by means of large-area support, especially when transporting mixed loads with packaging of varying sturdiness.

Paper and Steel Transport.
Sheet 19 - Load securing for wound coils made of steel, sheet metal panels and shaped steel.
This Directive examines the issue of load distribution and load securing in great detail due to the very high weights which steel cargo exerts on the vehicle chassis. Schematic illustrations, tables and calculation formula for the position and stability of the load along with a glossary defining the terms for sheet metal panels and shaped steel with the different commercial signs in packaging illustrate the complexity of this field. It is always important to consider that point loads or linear forces affecting the vehicle must be avoided. The load may need to be distributed with the help of wooden beams. 

Stanchions and heavy-duty lashing points with lashing chains are the most important load securing equipment. The directive describes high-strength flashing equipment such as chains, wire ropes and straps in detail. This ranges from the different structural shapes and materials to the identifying labels.

VDI 2700 - Technology - Securing of LoadsThe first step always  consists of identifying the  unique aspects of every  transport task.Even small details can   have major effects when  transporting heavy weights.

Sheet 9 - Load Securing of Hard Paper Rolls.
Sheet 9 of the Directive only addresses transporting paper rolls on road vehicles and excludes intermodal transport, namely loading the trailer onto a railway wagon or ship. Separate regulations apply in these cases, e.g. from Deutsche Bahn. This Directive also only applies to hard paper rolls and does not cover palletised paper formats or soft rolls such as toilet paper. 

Depending on the material combination, the sliding friction coefficients for paper rolls are between μ = 0.25 and 0.4. As a result, additional load securing is required despite the high weight and at the very least anti-slip materials are necessary. Only anti-slip material approved for transporting paper rolls may be used. This Directive also provides a very detailed description of the conditions for transporting different arrangements of rolls: arranged as individual upright rolls, in a straight group, alternating and horizontal. In the case of horizontal roles both slipping and rolling must be taken into consideration.