Load securing

Load securing

Load securing is essential. However, this can be challenging to continuously implement in tough, daily working environments. Securing of a load needs to be simple and fast.
Flexible load securing options in the S.CS curtainsider semi-trailer

Physical forces

Whether it's gravity, centrifugal force or friction - the laws of physics affect how you load your trailer.

Acceleration causes loads to slide backwards

Acceleration

Starting up - Changing speed within a defined period - that's acceleration. It causes loads to slide rearwards.
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Brakes cause the load to move forwards towards the driver's cab.

Braking

Reverse acceleration - Slowing down - braking - also represents a change in speed. It causes the load to move forwards towards the driver's cab.
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Cornering moves the load towards the side wall.

Cornering

Lateral acceleration - A change of direction is also obvious when cornering: centrifugal acceleration. It has the effect of moving the load towards the side wall.
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Weight force presses the load vertically onto the loading surface.

Weight force

Presses the load vertically onto the loading surface.
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Inertia acts counter to the semi-trailer's acceleration, braking and change of direction.

Inertia

Inertia holds the load in its present place and acts against acceleration, braking and changes in direction.
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Friction prevents or reduces displacement of the load.

Friction

Prevents or reduces displacement of the load. Its effect is influenced by the load's surface, and the loading surface.
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Load securing principles

A fundamental distinction is made between two principles of securing loads: containment and restraint.

Load security through restraint relies on intensifying the friction forces between the load and the loading surface. The pressure on the load is increased with the aid of lashing equipment, hence the load is more strongly pressed onto the loading surface, retaining its position.

Restraint as the load securing method: When lashing down a load, the restraint equipment does not directly secure a load, but increases the contact pressure. Friction alone prevents the load from slipping.

Load securing through containment is based on limiting the loading area, meaning that every item of freight rests on another item or against the limits of the cargo area, for instance the front or rear wall, leaving no gap.

In practice, the cargo needs to be positioned tightly against the front wall, rear wall or side walls (impact edge of the pallet), with no gaps between the individual elements.

Gaps between individual load elements cannot be completely prevented, however, they must not be more than a few centimetres, otherwise they do not provide containment The gaps must then be accordingly filled, or the load must be secured using restraints.

Floor securing sleeves

Normally, a combination of containment and restraint is the easiest and most effective, as the elements of both methods complement each other.

Each trailer provides different prerequisites to contain loads, even if the load type does not normally permit this, such as pallets with sacks or fragile goods.

Aids include perforated rails in the floor of the vehicle, Joloda rails integrated and lowered into the floor, insertable stanchions, cross-beams etc. However it is also possible to block the load by means of belts or the trailer body


Load distribution

All load securing measures are determined by the different types of load. This includes observing the German Road Traffic Regulations (StVO). Load distribution must not impair either traffic safety or operational safety.

Practical examples

A wide variety of goods are transported every day. Hence the most diverse requirements need to be met for securing loads.

  • Automotive
  • Beverage transport
  • Packaged goods
  • Paper transport
  • Coil transport

Rollcages enable different goods to be secured quickly, because the uniform sizes enable perfect form-fitting loads. In addition to the structural stability of the body, these include pallet stops for side fixing, transverse beams and telescopic rods to restrain through gaps in the load and within a height of 3m, a lifting roof to enable quick loading of 3 boxes placed on top of one another.

For certified tyre transport, the equipment must be complemented by 6 rows of support laths and 2 rows of steel slats on each side, in accordance with the Code XL certificate. A tensioning strap cross at each stanchion field holds the loose tyres longitudinally. Additional retention is provided by steel laths with a narrow perforated grid. Here, engaged transverse beams establish restrain a partial load.

Beverage transport has stringent requirements. Bottles and barrels come in various sizes. Avoid free space close to the limits of the loading area. In case of doubt, the interlocking load securing has to be supplemented by upright pallets and tie-down lashings. Vehicle bodies certified to Code XL can absorb all of the forces through the body itself. There must be no gaps between pallets. Spacer slats are used to compensate for any gaps, as are securing systems anchored between the roof and the floor.
Appropriate equipment must be used to achieve form-fitting loading when transporting packaged goods, where the cargo often comes in different sizes. One of the most important ways of doing so is by creating palletised loading units with standardised dimensions. Stanchions, vertical supports and clamping beams, which can be freely distributed throughout the loading surface, are perfect for this. Using a second layer in the trailer decouples the packaged goods from each other and enables them to be individually loaded in a form-fitting manner.
Wedges are important aids for securing horizontal paper rolls to prevent them from rolling away. All of the surfaces must be fitted with anti-slip mats specifically designed for paper transport. Directly lashing down paper rolls with a head strap can prevent them from tipping over.
Heavy steel coils cannot be transported on a trailer without the installation of special equipment. It is paramount that the chassis is designed for the high point loading. A recessed well then automatically defines the correct position during loading. Other load securing equipment: stanchions to insert in the well, tensioning chains and heavy-duty lashing eyes.

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